Glutamine is the most abundant single amino acid in the blood and in the muscle tissue comprising up to
60% of the amino acid pool in skeletal muscle. Glutamine’s unique structure, containing two nitrogen side
chains, consists of 19% nitrogen - making it the primary transporter of nitrogen into the muscle cell. In fact, glutamine alone is responsible
for 35% of the nitrogen that gets into the muscle cell.
Some tissue types, however, depend on glutamine much more than others. Specifically, glutamine is utilized as a source of energy and for nucleotide synthesis by all rapidly dividing cells,
such as the cells of the
intestinal lining and certain immune cells (thymocytes, lymphocytes and macrophages). Without sufficient glutamine, the intestines atrophy
and the immune function breaks down.
Glutamine serves as a nitrogen donor and a carbon donor, and is thus an important muscle-building amino
acid; it also helps replenish muscle glycogen after exercise. Without sufficient glutamine, muscles begin to atrophy. Glutamine is
many essential for intestinal, immune and muscle functions.
The synthesis of glutamine protects the body, and the brain in particular, from ammonia toxicity.
Excess ammonia is a crucial factor in the development
of neurodegenerative diseases, since ammonia interferes with the oxidative metabolism of neurons and reduces the production of
ATP, the "energy molecule." In addition, ammonia gives rise to very harmful nitrogen-based free radicals.
In the brain, glutamine is a substrate for the production of both excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters (glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric
acid, popularly known as GABA). Glutamine is also an important source of energy for the nervous system. If the brain is not receiving enough
glucose, it compensates by increasing glutamine metabolism for energy. Glutamine users often report more energy, less fatigue and better mood.
Glutamine For Muscle Building
Glutamine concentrations fall markedly after training and remain low until complete recovery and supplementing
with glutamine spares free glutamine in muscle tissue, counteracting the fall in muscle protein synthesis, and improving nitrogen
Glutamine is a key factor in muscle growth, and the higher the muscle glutamine levels you can maintain,
the less chance you have of falling into catabolism and the
faster muscle will grow. Growth hormone is an important anabolic hormone that regulates the metabolic processes
(including protein synthesis) in almost all tissues.
In a release from the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, the results of a study on glutamine revealed that a single 2 gram
oral dose of glutamine elevated circulating growth hormone levels by over 430%!
Keeping a consistently high level of circulating growth hormone allows you
to combat the catabolic effects of weight training and L-Glutamine may just be the most effective way of
assisting new muscle growth!
Glutamine also plays a part in maintaining proper blood glucose levels and the right pH range. If the pH of the blood is too acidic,
more glutamine is directed to the kidneys, releasing bicarbonate
ions to correct acidosis. If the pH is too alkaline, more glutamine is sent to the liver, where a different
kind of metabolism releases hydrogen ions to correct alkalosis.
Due to its dependence on sodium transport, glutamine is one of the amino acids that control the volume of water in
the cells, and the osmotic pressure in various tissues. Glutamine helps
prevent hypoglycemia , since it is easily converted to glucose when blood sugar is low.
Glutamine helps regulate the biosynthesis of DNA and RNA with recent reports
that glutamine is important for the cardiovascular system as well.
Glutamine is plentiful in both animal and plant protein. The typical American diet provides between 3.5 g and 7 g of glutamine; more is
synthesized according to need. Even so, heavy stress, such as strenuous exercise, infectious disease, surgery, burn injury or other acute
trauma leads to glutamine depletion.
Those who use NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatories) such as ibuprofen and indomethacin may have a special need for supplemental
glutamine. Fortunately, sufficient glutamine can undo the damage caused by NSAIDs, maintaining permeability at a healthy level.
Is there a danger to the brain?
"Glutamate" as it functions within the body does not mean
monosodium glutamate, a flavor enhancer discovered by East Asians, and originally manufactured from seaweed the most abundant natural
source. Monosodium glutamate is the sodium salt of glutamic acid-just as sodium ascorbate and calcium ascorbate are salts of ascorbic acid.
Glutamine differs from glutamate in that it has been formed from glutamate and ammonia, and thus has an extra nitrogen it can easily donate
whenever nitrogen might be needed. The enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ammonia to glutamate is called glutamine synthase. An
abundant supply of glutamine synthase is essential for our health, since the biosynthesis of glutamine is the process through which the body
eliminates excess ammonia.
MSG is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, while "glutamate," is the ionic form of glutamic acid.
Those prone to migraines should avoid MSG and aspartame, Very
high doses of MSG can overwhelm brain defenses and cause neural damage.
Strengthens the immune system,
Maintains muscle mass,
Helps the heart,
Combats hypoglycemia by raising serum glucose
There are many reasons for taking glutamine: healthier intestines, a stronger immune system, bigger muscles, better blood sugar control and a
more agile brain. For therapeutic uses, glutamine is especially recommended for people who suffer from intestinal problems, frequent NSAID
users who need to protect their gastrointestinal tract, those with immune dysfunction, and anyone under heavy stress (including strenuous exerc
ise) or recovering from injury or other trauma.
Glutamine is especially popular with body builders, and with those who wish to perk up their physical and mental energy. And our Glutamine is a pure,
pharmaceutical grade L-Glutamine in an odorless and tasteless powder.
Naturally occurring in whey protein, has been added to most
sports protein products.
Most common dose: one heaping teaspoon, or 4.5 grams.