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Protein Powders: AbstractWhey, a protein complex derived from milk, is being touted as a functional food with a number of health benefits.
The biological components of whey, including lactoferrin, beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, glycomacropeptide, and immunoglobulins, demonstrate a range of immune-enhancing properties. In addition, whey has the ability to act as an antioxidant, antihypertensive, antitumor, hypolipidemic, antiviral, antibacterial, and chelating agent. The primary mechanism by which whey is thought to exert its effects is by intracellular conversion of the amino acid cysteine to glutathione, a potent intracellular antioxidant. A number of clinical trials have successfully been performed using whey in the treatment of cancer, HIV, hepatitis B, cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, and as an antimicrobial agent. Whey protein has also exhibited benefit in the arena of exercise performance and enhancement.
In recent years, milk constituents have become recognized as functional foods, suggesting their use has a direct and measurable effect on health outcomes.
Whey, a by-product of cheese and curd manufacturing, was once considered a waste product. The discovery of whey as a functional food with nutritional applications elevated whey to a co-product in the manufacturing of cheese. Milk contains two primary sources of protein, the caseins and whey. After processing occurs, the caseins are the proteins responsible for making curds, while whey remains in an aqueous environment. The components of whey include beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, bovine serum albumin, lactoferrin, immunoglobulins, lactoperoxidase enzymes, glycomacropeptides, lactose, and minerals. In additional, whey derived from buttermilk versus cheese contains the lipid sphingomyelin.
Several cultures consider fermented foods part of a healthful diet. Historically, whey was considered a cure-all used to heal ailments ranging from gastrointestinal complaints to joint and ligament problems. Nanna Rognvaldardottir, an Icelandic food expert, describes how whey, called syra by the Icelandic people, is fermented and stored in barrels. Syra is diluted with water and ingested or used as a marinade or preservative for meat and other food. Syra was the most common beverage of Icelandic people and is thought to have replaced ale, due to lack of grains in the region.
Today, whey is a popular dietary protein supplement purported to provide antimicrobial activity, immune modulation, improved muscle strength and body composition, and to prevent cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Advances in processing technology, including ultrafiltration, microfiltration, reverse osmosis, and ion-exchange have resulted in development of several different finished whey products. Whey protein concentrates (ranging from 80-95 percent protein), reduced lactose whey, whey protein isolate, demineralized whey, and hydrolyzed whey are now available commercially. Each whey product varies in the amount of protein, carbohydrates, immunoglobulins, lactose, minerals, and fat in the finished product. These variables are important factors in the selection of whey fractions for specific nutritional applications. Table 1 describes the various whey protein products available.
Whey Protein Manufacturing
Protein from bovine whole milk consists of approximately 20-percent whey protein. When casein is removed from whole milk, liquid whey remains, having a protein concentration of about 65 percent. The following is a summary of the Ohio State University method of manufacturing whey protein powder. Milk is high-temperature, short-time pasteurized (163 degrees F for 30 seconds) and held overnight at 40 degrees C. The following morning the mixture is cooled to 30 degrees C, inoculated with a lactic acid culture, and incubated for 30 minutes. Rennet extract is added and the mixture is stirred, resulting in coagulation of curd.
Rennet is derived from the abomasum (fourth stomach) of newly born calves. Chymosin, the active enzyme ingredient of rennet, aids in the coagulation of milk by separating it into curds and whey. In a newly born calf, chymosin aides in the digestion and absorption of milk. Adult cows do not have this enzyme.
The liquid whey is drained through a stainless steel screen and the remaining curd is cut and cooked at 30 degrees C. Whey liquid is then filtered at 45 degrees C and brought to a pH of 3 by adding citric acid. The liquid is filtered to one-fifth its original volume, resulting in whey concentrate that is approximately 80-percent protein. This can be additionally micro-filtered to increase protein concentration to as high as 95 percent.
The final whey protein concentrate is warmed and spray-dried to achieve whey protein powder. Whey protein concentrates can then be put through an ion-exchange process to remove fat and lactose. In addition, some manufacturers hydrolyze (cleaving peptide bonds via enzymes or heat) the whey to provide more peptides and free amino acids in the final product.
The commercial success of whey protein has led to the development of high quality whey protein supplements manufactured as primary products and not as a byproduct of cheese manufacturing. Manufacturers take special care to preserve the biological activity, native protein structure, and protein-bound-fats in the finished product. Proteins are processed under low temperatures and not exposed to fluctuating pH changes to avoid denaturing the native structures. In addition, the source of milk and the health of the milking cows is thought to contribute to immune-enhancing activity of whey products.
Amino Acid Content
Collectively, whey proteins have all the essential amino acids and in higher concentrations compared to various vegetable protein sources such as soy, corn, and wheat gluten. (2) In addition to having a full spectrum of amino acids, the amino acids found in whey are efficiently absorbed and utilized, relative to free amino acid solutions.
Relative to other protein sources, whey has a high concentration of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs)--leucine, isoleucine, and valine. BCAAs, particularly leucine, are important factors in tissue growth and repair. Leucine has been identified as a key amino acid in protein metabolism during the translation-initiation pathway of protein synthesis.
Whey proteins are also rich in the sulfur-containing amino acids cysteine and methionine. With a high concentration of these amino acids, immune function is enhanced through intracellular conversion to glutathione.
Lactoferrin, an iron-binding glycoprotein, is a non-enzymatic antioxidant found in the whey fraction of milk as well as in colostrums. The lactoferrin component of whey consists of approximately 689 amino acid residues, while human lactoferrin consists of 691 residues. Whey lactoferrin is composed of a single polypeptide chain with two binding sites for ferric ions. Before processing, bovine lactoferrin is only 15-20 percent saturated with iron. Iron-depleted lactoferrin, defined as containing less than five-percent iron, is referred to as apolactoferrin. Human breast milk contains apolactoferrin. The concentration of lactoferrin in human milk and colostrums is approximately 2 mg/mL and 7 mg/ mL, respectively, while in bovine milk and colostrums it is approximately 0.2 mg/mL and 1.5 mg/ mL, respectively. Lactoferrin is a dominant component of whey protein in human breast milk; however, the concentration in most commercial whey protein powders is only 0.35-2.0 percent of total proteins.
Images of “protein powder” containers with accomplished bodybuilders on their labels help inform consumers that protein is a critical macronutrient in strength training success. Yet what is sometimes lost in this protein-bodybuilding link is that protein is an essential component for everyone, regardless of physical activity. Even those who live sedentary lives must ensure that their protein intake is complete and balanced.
The importance of protein in diet is undeniable. Protein creates digestive enzymes, transports other vitamins and nutrients, builds and repairs body tissue, and helps keep harmful bacteria at bay. These are bodily system function that all people need – not just bodybuilders and other athletes.
Eating the appropriate composition of protein in meals is, however, proving to be an unusually difficult challenge for many Americans. To begin with, many protein sources are not considered “complete” because they do not provide all of the required amino acids necessary in order to build newer proteins. These incomplete proteins are often derived from fruit, grain, vegetable, and nut sources[ii]. However, the alternative to these incomplete protein sources – such as meats and dairy – present their own unique dietary challenges.
The first challenge with respect to these meat-based sources of complete protein is that they are not an option for vegetarians. While the number of US vegetarians is difficult to pinpoint, educated estimates suggest that there are about 6 million adult vegetarians in the US, and the number is growing annually[iii]. Therefore, 6 million adult Americans cannot access complete protein through meat sources.
The second challenge is that many meat- and dairy-based meals in the US are excessively high in saturated fat, calories, sodium, and other unhealthy elements. As such, while those who frequent fast food restaurants for their source of complete protein may not suffer from protein deficiency, a disconcerting number of these people will suffer from poor health. This includes: obesity, clogged arteries, high blood pressure, and other adverse consequences what medical experts call the “social irresponsibility” of the fast food industry.
The clear challenge for nutritional experts is to identify a protein source that is both healthy and complete. The consequences of not finding a suitable protein source range from underperforming digestive systems and chemical imbalances to the ill effects of a condition called “Kwashiorkor”. More frequent in developing countries but with reported incidinces in the US, Kwashiorkor occurs in extreme protein-deficiency situations when when the body cannibalizes itself in a desperate attempt to find a source of protein.
Several attempts have been made to find the ideal complete protein source: one that is healthy, accessible to all eaters, and convenient. Indeed, this last criterion of convenience is of particular importance, because many Americans in the 21st century evidently have less time to eat than ever before.
Some of these attempts to find the ideal complete protein source hearken back a few generations. The classic peanut butter and jelly sandwich has been adopted as a complete protein source by some, but rejected by many more. While peanut butter does provide a good source of protein, the sodium content of most grocery store peanut butter brands, and the high carbohydrate and fat levels of the average “PB&J on white” keep it from being an ideal choice
Fortunately, as noted above, there are scientifically engineered products on the market that deliver the complete protein and nutrition that consumers expect when they purchase something with the words “nutritional supplement” on the container.
What is whey?
When we talk about whey we are actually referring to a complex milk-based ingredient made up of protein, lactose, fat and minerals. Protein is the best-known component of whey and is made up of many smaller protein subfractions such as: Beta-lactoglobulin, alpha-lactalbumin, immunoglobulins (IgGs), glycomacropeptides, bovine serum albumin (BSA) and minor peptides such as lactoperoxidases, lysozyme and lactoferrin.
Each of the subfractions found in whey has its own unique biological properties. Modern filtering technology has improved dramatically in the past decade, allowing companies to separate some of the highly bioactive peptides - such as lactoferrin and lactoperoxidase - from whey.
Some of these subfractions are only found in very minute amounts in cow’s milk, normally at less than one percent (e.g., lactoferrin, lactoperoxidase, etc.)
The medicinal properties of whey have been known for centuries. For example, an expression from Florence, Italy. Circa 1650, was "Chi vuol viver sano e lesto beve scotta e cena presto" which translates into English as "If you want to live a healthy and active life, drink whey and dine early."
Another expression from Italy regarding the benefits of whey (circa 1777) was "Allevato con la scotta il dottore e in bancarotta." Which translates into English "If everyone were raised on whey, doctors would be bankrupt.”
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The perfect food for your personal weight loss program as a meal replacement protein shake (MRP) or used to help gain weight when used between meals. SuperFood in an energizing smoothie, or with your favorite fresh fruit juice as a complete protein powder MRP. You’ll taste the difference. Guaranteed...SuperFood is SUPER FOOD milk & egg complete protein powder
SUPER FOOD tm COMPLETE PROTEIN POWDER MEAL REPLACEMENT:
Athletes & Bodybuilders
Meal Supplement Formula
Serving Size 42 grams (3 heaping Tbsp.)
Servings Per Container 21
Amount Per Serving Calories 160 Calories from Fat 10
% Daily Values* Total Fat 1 gr. 2% Saturated Fat 0 gr. 0% Cholesterol less than 5 mg. 1% Sodium 240 mg. 10% Potassium 550 mg. 16% Total Carbohydrates 17 gr. 6% Dietary Fiber 0 gr. 0% Sugars 16 gr. 0% Protein 21 gr. 42% Calcium 50% Thiamine 70% Riboflavin 70% Niacin 30% Isoleucine* 1117 mg Leucine* 1875 mg Lysine* 1545 mg Methionine* 517 mg Cystine* 150 mg Phenylalanine* 990 mg Threonine* 847 mg Tryptophan* 270 mg Valine* 1260 mg
* Percent Daily Values are based on a 2,000 calorie diet.
** Essential Amino Acids
Other Amino Acids: Histidine, Arginine Aspartic Acid, Serine, Blutamic Acid, Proline, Glycine, Alanine, Tyrosine
HIGHEST QUALITY PROTEIN POWDER AVAILABLE
WEIGHT LOSS: USE FOR MEAL REPLACEMENT
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GAIN WEIGHT: USE BETWEEN MEALS
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Super Food has a clean fresh taste so that you can create your own protein shake. Simply add Super Food to your favorite fruit juice or milk and add fresh or frozen fruit (ice cubes optional) and blend in a blender.
100% Natural, High Quality Protein Weight Loss-Meal Replacement
SUPER FOOD is made from 100% natural sources (milk and egg) providing a great tasting, sugar free, cholesterol free protein powder for a low calorie, low-fat nutritious drink.
Super Food has a clean, fresh taste so that you can create your own protein shake.
Every day millions of cells in your body wear out, die and must be replaced. Only protein contains a class of nitrogenous compounds necessary to build new cells. This wearing out and renewal process goes on regardless of your age. Protein (including the eight essential amino acids) is indispensable because it is not stored by the body, Without a proper intake of nitrogen-releasing foods, the body cannot function properly, and growth is impossible.
RESEARCH & STUDIES:There are numerous studies covering the positive benefits and importance of protein and amino acids to proper body functioning and optimized health.
DOSES & DIRECTIONS:Adults should take 2-3 heaping teaspoons per shake, 1-2 per day or as directed by physician.
Simply add Super Food to your favorite fruit juice or milk; add fresh or frozen fruit (ice cubes optional), and blend in a blender.
INGREDIENTS:All Natural Milk & Egg Protein base with Amino Acids, non-fat milk solids, calcium sodium caseinate, dried egg white, lecithin, niacinamide, Papaya Enzymes, natural food flavoring
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*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease
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