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OCTACOSANOL
Is the active ingredient in wheat germ oil. it is used to increase endurance, stamina & vigor.

TRADE NAMES
Octacosanol is available from numerous manufacturers generically. Branded products include Enduraplex (Nutrilabs), Prometabs (Viobin) and Prometol (Viobin). DESCRIPTION
Octacosanol is a 28 carbon long-chain saturated primary alcohol. It is a constituent of vegetable waxes. Octacosanol is isolated from the wax found on green blades of wheat. It is the major long-chain alcohol isolated from the waxes of sugar cane and yams. It is also found in wheat germ oil.

Octacosanol is also known as l-octacosanol, n-octacosanol and octacosyl alcohol. It has the following chemical formula:

Octacosanol (1-Octacosanol)

Octacosanol is a solid waxy substance that is insoluble in water. Octacosanol belongs to the family of fatty alcohols.

ACTIONS
The action of octacosanol is unknown. It is the major long-chain alcohol in policosanol (see Policosanol), and policosanol appears to lower cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol levels. However, the role of octacosanol in the putative cholesterol-lowering activity of policosanol is unclear.

The absorption of octacosanol is variable and low. Octacosanol absorption, following ingestion, ranges from about 11% in rats and humans to about 28% in rabbits. Less octacosanol is absorbed on an empty stomach and more with food. The higher the lipid content of food, the greater the absorption. Octacosanol is absorbed from the small intestine into the lymph and from there enters the bloodstream. Distribution is mainly to the liver, digestive tract, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue. Octacosanol may be partly oxidized to the long-chain fatty acid, octacosanoic acid, which then undergoes beta-oxidation.

Following a single dose of octacosanol in experimental animals, peak plasma levels are observed between 30 minutes to two hours. Following a single dose of octacosanol in human volunteers, peak plasma levels are observed at one hour and four hours later. Bile is the main route of excretion. Renal excretion is negligible.

USAGE
Octacosanol, like policosanol (see Policosanol), may have cholesterol-lowering effects but research will have to be done to confirm this. Similarly, there is preliminary evidence suggesting that octacosanol may increase physical endurance and that it may benefit some with Parkinson's disease. Octacosanol is not indicated for use in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis despite some claims of efficacy in this disorder.





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SUMMARY
There is limited evidence that octacosanol itself may lower cholesterol levels. There are claims that octacosanol is useful in building strength and endurance, and these claims have made the supplement popular with some body builders and athletes. There is preliminary evidence, limited to animal experiments, that octacosanol may increase voluntary exercise in the animals.

Evidence that octacosanol may help in the treatment of Parkinson's disease is very preliminary, and the use of this substance in a well-designed study of those suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis showed no benefit. Neither neurologic nor pulmonary functions were improved.

ADVERSE REACTIONS
None known.

PRECAUTIONS
Octacosanol is not recommended for children, pregnant women and nursing mothers. Parkinson's disease patients taking carbidopa-levodopa may experience side effects.Side effects of octacosanol taken up to 20 milligrams daily are infrequent. Mild position-related nonrotational dizziness, increased nervous tension and worsening of carbidopa-levodopa-related dyskinesias have been reported in a few Parkinson's disease patients taking octacosanol.

Carbidopa-levodopa: Octacosanol has been reported to worsen dyskinesias in a few Parkinson's disease patients taking carbidopa-levodopa. No other nutritional supplement, herb or food interactions are known. There are no reports of overdosage.

DOSAGE
Typical doses used are 1 to 8 milligrams (1,000 to 8,000 micrograms) daily taken with food. A dose of 20 milligrams daily should not be exceeded. Octacosanol frequently comes in mixtures with other long-chain alcohols. Capsules — 2000 mcg, 8000 mcg, 20,000 mcg
Tablets — 1000 mcg, 2000 mcg, 5000 mcg

Guarana

Scientific classification Kingdom: Plantae Division: Magnoliophyta Class: Magnoliopsida Order: Sapindales Family: Sapindaceae Genus: Paullinia Species: P. cupana

Binomial name Paullinia cupana Kunth

Guarana or Guaraná (pronounced gwa-ra-'naa), Paullinia cupana (syn. P. crysan, P. sorbilis), is a shrub or small tree in the Sapindaceae, native to Venezuela and northern Brazil, known for the high stimulant content of the fruit. The name 'Guaraná' comes from the Guarani tribe that lives in Brazil. Guaraná plays a very important role in their culture, as this plant is believed to be magical, a cure for bowel complaints and a way to regain strength. They also tell the myth of a 'Divine Child', that was killed by a serpent and whose eyes gave birth to this plant.

Uses
The Guaraná plant contains caffeine (though sometimes called guaranine), and so acts as a stimulant. Like many caffeine-containing plants, it is used for drinks; a kind of carbonated soft drink that is made from the Guaraná fruit is known as "Guaraná". Guarana contains a compound called Methylxanthine, the source of its energy boosting properties.

Numerous different brands of Guarana are available, differing greatly in flavour, some of them tasting nothing like natural Guarana fruit. Guarana soft drinks are particularly popular in Brazil, where sales are second only to cola drinks. They are typically fizzy and sweet, with a very fruity aftertaste. Most Guaraná is produced in Brazil and consumed either in Brazil or in nearby countries, such as Paraguay. Major brands in Brazil include Guaraná Antarctica and Guaraná Brahma from AmBev, Kuat from The Coca-Cola Company, besides local producers. There are a number of other energy drinks containing Guaraná available worldwide, including Bawls, Rockstar, AMP, V, SoBe, Guaraná Power, MDX, Monster, Vores Øl and Molson Kick (the last two are beers). Some people see Guarana as an aphrodisiac.

They are shelled and washed they are roasted for six hours, then put into sacks and shaken till their outside shell comes off, they are then pounded into a fine powder and made into a dough with water, and rolled into cylindrical pieces 8 inches long; these are then dried in the sun or over a slow fire, till they became very hard and are then a rough and reddish-brown colour, marbled with the seeds and testa in the mass. They break with an irregular fracture, have little smell, taste astringent, and bitter like chocolate without its oiliness, and in colour like chocolate powder; it swells up and partially dissolves in water.

  • Constituents---A crystallizable principle, called guaranine, identical with caffeine, which exists in the seeds, united with tannic acid, catechutannic acid starch, and a greenish fixed oil.
  • Medicinal Action and Uses---Nervine, tonic, slightly narcotic stimulant, aphrodisiac febrifuge. A beverage is made from the guaran sticks, by grating half a tablespoonful into sugar and water and drinking it like tea. The Brazilian miners drink this constantly and believe it to be a preventive of many diseases, as well as a most refreshing beverage. Their habit in travelling is to carry the stick or a lump of it in their pockets, with a palate bone or scale of a large fish with which to grate it. P. Cupana is also a favourite national diet drink, the seeds are mixed with Cassava and water, and left to ferment until almost putrid, and in this state it is the favourite drink of the Orinoco Indians. From the tannin it contains it is useful for mild forms of leucorrhoea, diarrhoea, etc., but its chief use in Europe and America is for headache, especially if of a rheumatic nature. It is a gentle excitant and serviceable where the brain is irritated or depressed by mental exertion, or where there is fatigue or exhaustion from hot weather. It has the same chemical composition as caffeine, theine and cocaine, and the same physiological action. Its benefit is for nervous headache or the distress that accompanies menstruation, or exhaustion following dissipation. It is not recommended for chronic headache or in cases where it is not desirable to increase the temperature, or excite the heart or increase arterial tension.

  • Dosage---Powder, 10 grains to 1/2 drachm. Fluid extract of Guarana, U.S.P., 30 minims sweetened with one teaspoonful of syrup in water three times a day.


    Energy Boost Natural Energy Tabs :



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  • ALL NATURAL HERBAL SUPPLEMENT
    BENEFITS OF USE:
    Increase's mental acuity and increase's energy level, by increasing adrenal activity and its effect on the central nervous system. Affects the medulla portion of the adrenal cortex releasing the gluco-corticoid hormones into the brain without the side effects of coffee (Aribica family of caffeine). The safe and effective dose recommended by the Food and Drug Administration is 130 mg. Caffeine improves (reduces) reaction times to sensory stimuli and increases motion activity (your ability to perform skillful movement faster and more efficiently), and definitely increase's spontaneity of association. Boost helps you take better advantage of incoming information, organizing it so that it could be better assimilated and formed into a stable memory trace.



    RESEARCH & STUDIES:
    Several experiments were carried out by Thomas Kirk Cureton Jr. Professor and Director of the Physical Fitness Institute of the University of Illinois at Champagne-Urbana.

    These experiments were run at the U.S. Navy's Underwater Swimmers School at Key West, FL and at Little Creek, VA using the Underwater Demolitin Team of the U.S. Marine Corps.

    Octacosanol appears clearly to be an important ergogenic aid and more research into the benfits of this natural food substance.



    DOSES & DIRECTIONS:
    Adults take 2-3 capsules each day or as directed by physician.


    INGREDIENTS:
    OCTACOSANOL {CH-3 (CH-2) 26 CH-20H-A} is found in small amounts in alfalfa, wheat leaves, & wheat germ. Normal, primary octacosyl alcohol consists of a long, straight chain of 28 carbon atoms, with an hydroxyl (or OH) group linked to the final carbon atom; a white crystalline solid having a melting point of about 182 degrees F and a molecular weight of 410.77. Twenty-three years of experimentation with both human and animal subjects, has located and defined octacosanol.

    GUARANA (Paullinia Cupana Kunth) a 100% natural, federally approved herb classified as a food additive that has been used for centuries to reduce hunger and fatigue . Derived from a crystallizable stubstance called Guaranine, existing in seeds. It is a member of the caffeine family, called Sapindaceae.


    CAFFIENE

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    *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration.
    This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease


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