***** FUN HOME FITNESS or GROUP EXERCISE EQUIPMENT *****





A

Abduction
move away from the midline
Adduction
to move toward the midline
Adipose
fatty
Aerobic
in the presence of oxygen
Agonist
a muscle whose contraction opposes the action of another muscle, its antagonist, which at the same time relaxes
Ailment
any bodily or mental disorder
Alpha Lipoic Acid
An antioxidant found in the body which helps maintain normal nerve function.
Amino acid
an organic compound containing nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen; the building block of protein.
Anaerobic
requiring no oxygen to live or grow.
Angina pectoris
chest pain due to insufficient blood supply and oxygen to the heart
Anatomy
the science of the structure of organs or organic beings.
Antagonists
a muscle that acts in opposition to an agonist or prime mover.
Antioxidant
Compound which neutralizes free radicals or prevents free radical-initiated chemical reactions.
Anterior
the front of an organ, part or being, the ventral surface.
Aorta
The main arterial vessel
Atrophy
a reduction in size or wasting away of an organ or cell resulting from disease or lack of use.
Arteries
carry oxygenated blood away from the heart.
Arteriosclerosis
hardening and loss of elasticity of the artery wall.
Arthritis
inflamation of a joint(s).
Atheroscierosis
Fatty substance build-up on the inner lining of the arteries.

B

Ballistic
a bouncing movement using the force of gravity.
Basal metabolic rate
the lowest rate of metabolism while at a state of rest.
Biceps
two headed.
Bilateral
affecting two sides.
Blood pressure
Force exerted against the heart and blood vessel walls by the blood (systolic and diastolic).
Body Composition
percentages of muscle, fat, bone and other tissue that make up the body.
Bone
hard substance that makes the skeletal system.
Bulk
muscle mass

C


Capillaries
Small blood channels that are the endpoints at which blood/nutrient exchange takes place.
Carbohydrates
organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen with the hydrogen and oxygen present 2:1 ratio; 4Kcal/gram.
Cardiovascular Fitness
the ability of the heart, blood vessels, blood and respiratory system to supply oxygen to the muscles during sustained exercise.
Cartilage
Dense connective tissue that covers the joint surfaces of bones.
Cellulite
Subcutaneous fat (adipose tissue).
Cholesterol
Fatty substance that can accumilate inside tissues.
Chondromalacia
condition resulting from the wearing away of the back of the patella (kneecap)
Concentric
shortening of the muscle due to contraction.
Coronary
refering to the heart.

D


Diastolic
pressure on the arterial wall during the resting phase of a heartbeat.
Distal
furthest from the center or midpoint of a limb structure.
Dorsal
pertaining to the back; posterior.

E


Eccentic
motion where there is a controlled lengthening of the muscle during its contraction.
Ectomorph
Thin body type.
Edema
swelling due to abnormal fluid accumulation.
Endomorph
Rounder, higher fat body build.
Endorphins
Natural chemical released by the body during vigorous exercise.
Extension
movement that increases the angle between bones.

F


Fixator
a muscle acting to immobilize a joint or a bone; fixes the origin of prime movers so that muscle action can be exerted at the insertion.
Fascia
fibrous tissue covering the muscle
Flexibility
is the range of motion available in a joint.
Flexion
bending; the movement that decreases the angle between bones.
Fracture
breaking of a bone.

G


Genetics
the science of heredity.

H


Hamstring muscles
the posterior thigh muscles: biceps femoris, semimembranosus and semitendinosus.
Heart
A four chamber, muscular organ that pumps blood through the body.
HDL
high density lipoprotein - cholesterol

I


Illness
disease, indisposition, sickness
Invert
to turn inward.
Isokinetic
type of contraction where the speed of movement is fixed and resistance varies with the force exerted.
Isometric
contraction of a muscle against an immovable force.
Isotonic
muscle contraction where tension is equal throughout the range of motion.

J



K



L


Lactic acid
chemical produced by cells during exercise when there is an insufficient supply of oxygen.
Lateral
away from the midline of the body.
Ligament
a band or sheetlike fibrous tissue connecting bones or parts.
Lipid
group of fatty acids stored by the body.
LDL
low density lipoprotein - cholesterol
Lumbar curve
specific area of the lower back comprised of 5 vertebrae that form a curve.

M


Maximum heart rate
maximum allowable heart rate. MHR=220-Age
Medial
toward the midline of the body.
Metabolic rate
the energy expended by the body per unit time.
Metabolism
the sum total of the chemical reactions that occur in the body.
Muscular Endurance
ability of the muscles to repeatedly exert themselves.

N



O


Obese
excessive fat; women-30% or more body fat; men-20% or more

P


Patella
the kneecap.
Physiology
the science of the functions of organic beings
Plantar
pertaining to the sole of the foot.
Posterior
pertaining to the back; dorsal view.
Prone
lying face down in a horizontal position.
Protagonist
Muscles working together to create a certain movement.
Proximal
toward the attached end of a limb or the origin of a structure.
Protein
nutrient comprised of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon and hydrogen. 4 Kcal/gram.
Pulmonary
having to do with the lungs or lung tissue.

Q


R


Rotator cuff
four intrinsic muscles of the shoulder responsible for arm rotation and keeping the humerus in the glenoid fossa.

S


Saturated fats
hydronated fat
Static
position held with no movement
Strength
the ability to move an external force or to lift a heavy object.
Synergist
a muscle cooperating with another to produce a movement neither alone can produce.
Systolic
blood pressure on the artery wall during heart contraction.

T


Target heart rate
60-80% of the MHR; exercise training zone.
Tendon
a band of dense fibrous tissue forming the termination of a muscle and attaching the muscle to bone.

U



V


Vascoconstriction
decrease in blood vessel diameter.

W



X



Y



Z







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